Coronary Physiology


Invasive coronary physiology is a key instrument in decision making for the interventional cardiologist.

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has been well validated in chronic stable coronary artery disease. FFR is the ratio of the pressure distal to a lesion relative to the aorta pressure during maximal hyperaemia. Its practical applications are expanding into other clinical situations, including acute coronary syndrome, severe aortic stenosis and post percutaneous coronary intervention.

Instant wave-free ratio (iFR) is a resting index used to assess severity of an intracoronary stenosis. It measures the ratio of mean coronary pressure distal to a stenosis to the mean aortic pressure during an isolated period of diastole – the “wave-free period”.

It is an attractive alternative to FFR because it does not require hyperaemia, and therefore has a lower incidence of patient discomfort, side-effects, and shorter procedural time.


Coronary Microvascular Spasm: Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis


21 March 2023


European Cardiology Review 2023;18:e07.

12-month Outcomes of CAFFR-guided PCI Deferral


04 November 2022


Journal of Asian Pacific Society of Cardiology 2022;1:e28.

Management of Coronary Disease in TAVI Patients


07 December 2021


European Cardiology Review 2021;16:e49.

Antithrombotics in LM and Bifurcation PCI


14 June 2021


US Cardiology Review 2021;15:e11.